The Netherlands
The Netherlands is a highly urbanised country. At the same time, the share of the population that lives in large metropolitan areas (over 500,000 people) is remarkably small. The majority of Dutch ‘urbanites’ live in small and medium-sized towns. In the Netherlands, about three quarters of the population live in urban areas and most people work there. The largest metropolitan areas also show the strongest population growth. In 2015, the Dutch Government launched its Agenda Stad, a national urban agenda to promote economic growth, improve liveability and stimulate innovation in urban areas. The Dutch urban agenda affirms that cities play a key role in the future development of the country. It focuses on the overlapping areas of economy, liveability and innovation. Opportunities and challenges in urban areas that require collaboration between the national government, cities and other stakeholders lie at the heart of the Dutch. The liveability of Dutch cities has improved dramatically over the past few decades. Local problems regarding air pollution, traffic congestion, income disparities and safety still remain however. Cities can contribute to improving the liveability by investing in sustainable mobility schemes, affordable housing and quality of the public space.

Large cities have to address challenges such as overcrowding, traffic congestion, rising energy consumption and environmental degradation. This will in turn drive demand for infrastructure investments. Singapore has the aim to become to become world’s first Smart Nation where citizens live meaningful and fulfilled lives empowered by digital technology. Singapore is already known as a Liveable City; clean, a lot of green, attention for sustainability and excellent public transport. To strengthen this position the government stimulates living labs to test new concept for urban developments and implement these new technologies in Singapore Smart Nation. To keep the city liveable the interest in circular economy solutions is growing.

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